Good Neighbor Policy and Brazil-US Relations: a brief historiographical overview by Adriana Mendonça Cunha (COC/Fiocruz)”

O Presidente Franklin D. Roosevelt brinca com o Presidente Getúlio Vargas, Natal-RN, 1943 | Imagem: Wikimedia Commons

Abstract: “In this article, I present a brief overview of the historiographical production focused on the study of the relations between Brazil and the United States in the 1930s and 1940s, highlighting the role of cultural exchanges and trade in promoting an alliance between the two countries.

Keywords: Cultural Exchanges; Good Neighbor Policy; Brazil-US Relations.


In the first half of the 20th century, Brazil underwent a series of political, economic and social changes that transformed it into a regional, modern and industrialized power (Lochery, 2015). Decisive in this process were the rise of Getúlio Vargas to power in 1930 and the outbreak of the Second World War (1939-1945). Vargas’ nationalist policy, combined with the country’s strategic importance in the midst of the international conflict, allowed for closer relations with the United States and for obtaining resources for the industrialization and re-equipment of the Armed Forces.

Not by chance, the relations between the two countries in the 1930s and 1940s have been the focus of analysis by dozens of Brazilian and American historians throughout the 20th century. It is possible to find a vast production, with works that discuss political, economic, military, cultural and scientific aspects. For this article, I selected some classic texts, widely referenced by historiography, and more recent productions that are characterized by their focus on new issues, characters and approaches.

Since the end of the 1960s, American and Brazilian historians have focused on Brazilian foreign policy. Some authors stand out, such as Frank McCann (1974), Stanley Hilton (1975), Moniz Bandeira (1973), Gerson Moura (1982), Mônica Hirst (1982) and Ricardo Seitenfus (1985), pioneers in the study of Brazil-US relations .[1]

The productions of these researchers focused primarily on disputes between the United States and Germany for Brazilian markets in the 1930s. . However, they are relevant works for the field and are constantly revisited by new generations of historians who study the subject.

Among the cited works, Frank McCann’s Alliance Brazil-United States (1937-1945) stands out, which explores the constitution of the Estado Novo and the efforts of the US government to achieve an alliance with Brazil in the fight against the Axis. McCann’s book became a reference both for his contemporaries and for more recent research that addresses Brazil-US relations during the war.

Another indispensable author is Gerson Moura and his books Autonomia na dependence (1980), Foreign Affairs of Brazil (1982) and Uncle Sam arrives in Brazil (1984). Moura produced extensive studies on Brazilian foreign relations between the 1930s and 1950s, focusing on the country’s rapprochement with the United States. Known for the concept of “pragmatic equidistance”, coined to characterize Vargas’ posture in negotiations with the United States and Germany, Moura is still important for researchers who study this topic.

While Moura’s first two works focus on the country’s foreign relations and Vargas’ position on the conflict in Europe, his book Uncle Sam arrives in Brazil discusses the actions of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA) in the country. [two] The central issue of this work is the growing cultural influence exerted by the Americans after the Second World War. The author draws attention to the strong cultural and educational exchange between Brazil and the United States during this period. Moura even points out the existence of resistance to US influence, but ends up presenting these exchanges as a one-way street, based on “teaching” (USA) and “learning” (Brazil). (Moura, 1991, p.50).

Throughout the 1900s and 2000s, the number of productions focused on OCIAA’s actions in the press, cinema, music, literature, education and science grew. Among them is the book O imperialismo sedutor (2001), by Antonio Pedro Tota. In this work, the author analyzes the actions of OCIAA in Brazil, highlighting the call for artists, intellectuals, businessmen, journalists and other professionals to act in the promotion of exchanges with Brazilians. Tota presents the “Americanization” of Brazil not as imitation or passive acceptance, but as a process marked by advances, setbacks and resistance.

Regarding educational exchanges during the war, I highlight Rabelo’s (2019) research on Charleton Washburne’s travels through Latin America, in 1942, in the service of the State Department. Washburne was president of the Progressive Education Association (PEA), an American organization, section of the New Education Fellowship (NEF), an international association devoted to publishing journals, promoting conferences, and creating study groups in the field of education.[11]

Carleton Washburne, da faculdade de Brooklyn (NY), Leon Hamlet (à esquerda), Carlin Turner, W. Potter Rd. e Martin Kuban. Foto: Jornal de Milwaukee (1955)

Regarding educational exchanges during the war, I highlight Rabelo’s (2019) research on Charleton Washburne’s travels through Latin America, in 1942, in the service of the State Department. Washburne was president of the Progressive Education Association (PEA), an American organization, section of the New Education Fellowship (NEF), an international association devoted to publishing journals, promoting conferences and creating study groups in the educational field.[11]According to According to the author, the Brazilian section NEF was created during Washburne’s visit to Brazil in 1942. His trip to Latin America was linked to the international conference of that organization, held in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1941. Rabelo studies the construction of networks between Washburne and Latin American representatives from the event at UM, which earned him the invitation to travel around the region on behalf of the State Department. During his visits to countries like Brazil, he would have managed to mobilize contacts, mediating the creation of NEF in the country.

Finally, I highlight studies developed by Kropf (2020) and Cunha (2021) on educational exchanges promoted under the Brazilian Fellowship Program, an agreement signed in 1938 between the Brazil-United States Institute and the University of Michigan. While Kropf focuses on the creation of the program, Cunha deepens from a case study to highlight the complexity of exchanges between Brazil and the United States. The two authors highlight the multiplicity of characters, interests and negotiations of the agents involved in the exchanges made possible by the Good Neighbor Policy.[12]

The works cited here highlight figures such as researchers, professors and scientists, involved in educational exchanges between Brazil and the USA. These meetings, made possible by the Good Neighbor Policy, reveal the importance of cultural diplomacy in building networks between institutions and researchers from both countries. At the same time, they point to the importance of these characters in the implementation of US policies directed at Brazil and also highlight institutional, state and personal interests and gains, transformations and mutual influences, without losing sight of the asymmetries of the meetings.

Conclusion

In this article, I made a brief assessment of the historiographical production on Brazil-United States relations between the 1930s and 1940s. for more recent work.

Since the 1960s, the number of studies on the period has grown and expanded with different approaches, objects and focuses of analysis. If at the end of the 20th century political studies predominated, today there is an increase in the focus on cultural dimensions. Cinema, literature, radio, cultural and educational exchanges are themes that are calling the attention of Brazilian historians.

Furthermore, the change in scales of analysis with the growth of case studies is perceptible, revealing aspects and issues little explored in previous works. When focusing on characters and/or agencies, many researchers have highlighted the complexity of relations between the two countries and the multiple interests and conflicts that permeated the process of rapprochement between Brazilians and Americans.

With regard to the educational field, the productions are incipient, but they are promising. The studies produced demonstrate the importance of the Good Neighbor Policy for the transit of teachers and students between the two countries, demonstrating the importance of these meetings in the circulation of educational theories and methods, in the construction of transnational networks.

Notas

[1] MCCANN, Frank D. Aliança Brasil-Estados Unidos (1937-1945). Tradução: Jayme Taddei e José Lívio Dantas. Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 1995. ____. Soldados da pátria: história do exército brasileiro (1889-1937). São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007. ___. Brazil and United States during World Ward II and Its Aftermath: Negotiating Alliance and Balacing Fiants. Swizerland: Palgrave Macmillian, 2018. HILTON, Stanley E. Brazil and the Great Powers (1930-1939). Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975.  ___. A guerra secreta de Hitler no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1983. ___. O ditador e o embaixador. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record, 1987. De todos os autores mencionados, Moniz Bandeira é o que trabalha com períodos mais amplos da história das relações Brasil-EUA. Entre seus livros sobre o tema estão: BANDEIRA, Moniz. Presença dos Estados Unidos no Brasil (dois séculos de história). Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 1973. ____. Brasil-Estados Unidos: a rivalidade emergente (1955-1980). Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 1989. ____. Brasil, Argentina e Estados Unidos (Da Tríplice Aliança ao Mercosul). Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2003. HIRST, Mônica. O processo de alinhamento nas relações Brasil-EUA. Dissertação de Mestrado. Instituto Universitário de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro (IUPERJ), 1982.  HIRST, Mônica. Brasil-Estados Unidos: desencontros e afinidades. Rio de Janeiro: FGV, 2009. SEITENFUS, Ricardo Antônio Silva. O Brasil de Getúlio Vargas e a formação dos blocos (1930-1942): o processo de envolvimento brasileiro na II Guerra Mundial. São Paulo: Editora Nacional, 1985. MOURA, Gerson. Autonomia na dependência: a política externa brasileira de 1935 a 1942. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1980. Este livro é resultado da dissertação de mestrado, realizado junto ao IUPERJ em 1979. MOURA, Gerson. Tio Sam chega ao Brasil: a penetração cultural americana. Rio de Janeiro: Brasiliense, 1984. MOURA, Gerson. Relações exteriores do Brasil (1939-1950): mudanças na natureza das relações Brasil-Estados Unidos durante e após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Brasília: Fundação Alexandre de Gusmão, 2012. Publicado em 2012, este livro é resultado da tese de doutorado do autor, defendida, em 1982, na Universidade de Londres sob a orientação de Leslie Bethell.

[2] O Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA) foi criado pelo governo estadunidense, em 1940, sob a liderança do milionário e filantropo Nelson Rockefeller. Esta agência tinha como objetivo promover a aproximação entre EUA e América Latina através do patrocínio de intercâmbios, viagens de artistas e intelectuais, publicação de revistas, produção de filmes, documentários e telejornais, entre outras atividades.

[3] Alguns exemplos: GARCIA, Tânia da Costa. Carmen Miranda e os Good Neigbours. Diálogos, vol. 7, p.37-46, 2003. MAUAD, Ana Maria. Genevieve Naylor, fotógrafa: impressões de viagem (Brasil, 1941-1942). Revista Brasileira de História, v. 25, n. 49, p.43-75, 2005. RABELO, Fernanda Lima. A Hollywood da boa vizinhança: imagens do Brasil em documentários norte-americanos na Segunda Guerra. Jundiaí: Paco, 2018.

[4] VALIM, Alexandre Busko. O triunfo da persuasão: Brasil, Estados Unidos e o cinema na política de boa vizinhança durante a II Guerra Mundial. São Paulo: Alameda, 2017. MORINAKA, Eliza Mitiyo. Livros, trocas culturais e relações internacionais Brasil-Estados Unidos em um contexto de guerra (1941-1946). Varia História, Belo Horizonte, v.35, n.69, p.691-722, set./dez. 2019.

[5] MARINHO, Maria Gabriela S. M. C. Norte-americanos no Brasil. Uma história da Fundação Rockefeller na Universidade de São Paulo (1934-1952). Campinas: Diretores Associados; São Paulo: Universidade São Francisco, 2001.

[6] SILVA, André Cândido Felipe da. A diplomacia das cátedras: a política cultural externa alemã e o ensino superior paulista – os casos da USP e da Escola Paulista de Medicina (1934-1942). História (São Paulo), v.32, n.01, p.401-431, jan./jun. 2013. SILVA, André Felipe Cândido da. A diplomacia das cátedras: a política cultural externa alemã e o ensino superior paulista – os casos da USP e da Escola Paulista de Medicina (1934-1942). História (São Paulo), v.32, n. 1, p. 401-431, jan./jun. 2013.

[7] FREIRE JUNIOR, Olival. Diplomacia cultural no contexto da Segunda Guerra: o caso da Engenharia Metalúrgica na USP. Revista Brasileira de História da Ciência, Rio de Janeiro, v.10, n.2, p.142-153, jul./dez. 2017. SILVA, Indianara; FREIRE JUNIOR, Olival. Diplomacy and Science in the Context of World War II: Arthur Compton’s 1941 Trip to Brazil. Revista Brasileira de História, São Paulo, v. 34, n. 67, p.181-201, 2014.

[8] KROPF, Simone P.; HOWELL, Joel D. War, Medicine and Cultural Diplomacy in the Americas: Frank Wilson and Brazilian Cardiology. Jounal of the History and Allied Sciences, v.0, n.0, p.1-26, August 10, 2017.

[9] CAMPOS, André Luiz Vieira de. Políticas internacionais de saúde na Era Vargas: o Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública, 1942-1960. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Fiocruz, 2006.

[10] LOPES, Thiago da Costa. Em busca da comunidade: ciências sociais, desenvolvimento rural e diplomacia culturas nas relações Brasil-EUA (1930-1950). Rio de Janeiro: Editora Fiocruz, 2020.

[11] RABELO, Fernanda. Carleton Washburne e o Departamento de Estado dos EUA: a educação latino-americana em meio à política de boa vizinhança. Anais do I Congresso Internacional Pensamento e Pesquisa sobre a América Latina. FFLCH/USP, São Paulo, 2019.

[12] KROPF, Simone Petraglia. Circuitos da boa vizinhança: Diplomacia cultural e intercâmbios educacionais entre Brasil e Estados Unidos durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Varia História, Belo Horizonte, v.36, n. 71, p.91-118, maio/ago. 2020. CUNHA, Adriana Mendonça. Intercâmbios educacionais em tempo de guerra: os apontamentos de Robert K. Hall sobre as reformas do ensino secundário no Estado Novo. Revista Hydra, v.6, n.10, p.226-258, ago. 2021.

References

KROPF, Simone P. Circuitos da boa vizinhança: Diplomacia cultural e intercâmbios educacionais entre Brasil e Estados Unidos durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Varia História, Belo Horizonte, v.36, n. 71, p.91-118, maio/ago. 2020.

LOCHERY, Neil. Brasil: os frutos da guerra. Tradução: Lourdes Sette. Rio de Janeiro: Intrínseca, 2015.

MACCANN, Frank D. Aliança Brasil-Estados Unidos (1937-1945). Tradução: Jayme Taddei e José Lívio Dantas. Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 1995.

MOURA, Gerson. Relações Exteriores do Brasil (1930-1950): mudanças na natureza das relações Brasil-Estados Unidos durante e após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Brasília: Fundação Alexandre de Gusmão, 2012.

MOURA, Gerson. Tio Sam chega ao Brasil: a penetração cultural americana. 7ed. Rio de Janeiro: Brasiliense, 1991.

RAJ, Kapil. Além dos pós-colonialismo… e pós-positivismo: circulação e a história global da ciência. Revista Maracanan, Rio de Janeiro, n. 12, p. 164-175, dez., 2015.

RAJ, Kapil. Conexões, cruzamentos, circulações: a passagem da cartografia britânica pela Índia, séculos XVII-XIX. Cultura: Revista de História e Teorias das Ideias, v. 24, p. 155-179, 2007.

SILVA, Indianara. FREIRE JUNIOR, Olival; Diplomacy and Science in the Context of World War II: Arthur Compton’s 1941 Trip to Brazil. Revista Brasileira de História. São Paulo, v. 34, n. 67, p.181-201, 2014.

TOTA, Antonio Pedro. O imperialismo sedutor: a americanização do Brasil na época da Segunda Guerra. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2000.

WEINSTEIN, Barbara. Pensando a história fora da nação: a historiografia da América Latina e o viés transnacional. Revista Eletrônica da ANPHLAC, n. 14, p. 9-36, jan./jun., 2013.


Autora

Adriana Mendonça Cunha is a doctoral student at the Graduate Program in History of Sciences and Health at Casa de Oswaldo Cruz (PPGHCS/COC/Fiocruz). She has a master’s degree in Education from the Federal University of Sergipe (PPGED / UFS) and a degree in History from the same institution. She has published, among other works, Desvendando caminhos para análise de fontes oficiais (2022) e Intercâmbios educacionais em tempos de guerra os apontamentos de Robert K. Hall (2021). Member of the Present Grupo de Estudos do Tempo Presente (GET/UFS/CNPq). ID Currículo Lattes:  http://lattes.cnpq.br/8814713580643406; ID Orcid: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0377-8745; E – mail: [email protected].


To cite this article

CUNHA, Adriana Mendonça. Relações EUA e América Latina nas décadas e 1930 e 1940. Crítica Historiográfica. Natal, v.3, n.9, jan./fev., 2023. Disponível em <https://www.criticahistoriografica.com.br/a-politica-da-boa-vizinhanca-e-as-relacoes-brasil-eua-um-breve-balanco-historiografico/>. DOI: 10.29327/254374.3.9-13


© – Authors who publish in Crítica Historiográfica agree to the distribution, remixing, adaptation and creation of their texts, even for commercial purposes, provided that due credit is guaranteed for the original creations. (CC BY-SA).

 

Crítica Historiográfica. Natal, v.3, n. 9, jan./feb., 2023 | ISSN 2764-2666

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Good Neighbor Policy and Brazil-US Relations: a brief historiographical overview by Adriana Mendonça Cunha (COC/Fiocruz)”

O Presidente Franklin D. Roosevelt brinca com o Presidente Getúlio Vargas, Natal-RN, 1943 | Imagem: Wikimedia Commons

Abstract: “In this article, I present a brief overview of the historiographical production focused on the study of the relations between Brazil and the United States in the 1930s and 1940s, highlighting the role of cultural exchanges and trade in promoting an alliance between the two countries.

Keywords: Cultural Exchanges; Good Neighbor Policy; Brazil-US Relations.


In the first half of the 20th century, Brazil underwent a series of political, economic and social changes that transformed it into a regional, modern and industrialized power (Lochery, 2015). Decisive in this process were the rise of Getúlio Vargas to power in 1930 and the outbreak of the Second World War (1939-1945). Vargas’ nationalist policy, combined with the country’s strategic importance in the midst of the international conflict, allowed for closer relations with the United States and for obtaining resources for the industrialization and re-equipment of the Armed Forces.

Not by chance, the relations between the two countries in the 1930s and 1940s have been the focus of analysis by dozens of Brazilian and American historians throughout the 20th century. It is possible to find a vast production, with works that discuss political, economic, military, cultural and scientific aspects. For this article, I selected some classic texts, widely referenced by historiography, and more recent productions that are characterized by their focus on new issues, characters and approaches.

Since the end of the 1960s, American and Brazilian historians have focused on Brazilian foreign policy. Some authors stand out, such as Frank McCann (1974), Stanley Hilton (1975), Moniz Bandeira (1973), Gerson Moura (1982), Mônica Hirst (1982) and Ricardo Seitenfus (1985), pioneers in the study of Brazil-US relations .[1]

The productions of these researchers focused primarily on disputes between the United States and Germany for Brazilian markets in the 1930s. . However, they are relevant works for the field and are constantly revisited by new generations of historians who study the subject.

Among the cited works, Frank McCann’s Alliance Brazil-United States (1937-1945) stands out, which explores the constitution of the Estado Novo and the efforts of the US government to achieve an alliance with Brazil in the fight against the Axis. McCann’s book became a reference both for his contemporaries and for more recent research that addresses Brazil-US relations during the war.

Another indispensable author is Gerson Moura and his books Autonomia na dependence (1980), Foreign Affairs of Brazil (1982) and Uncle Sam arrives in Brazil (1984). Moura produced extensive studies on Brazilian foreign relations between the 1930s and 1950s, focusing on the country’s rapprochement with the United States. Known for the concept of “pragmatic equidistance”, coined to characterize Vargas’ posture in negotiations with the United States and Germany, Moura is still important for researchers who study this topic.

While Moura’s first two works focus on the country’s foreign relations and Vargas’ position on the conflict in Europe, his book Uncle Sam arrives in Brazil discusses the actions of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA) in the country. [two] The central issue of this work is the growing cultural influence exerted by the Americans after the Second World War. The author draws attention to the strong cultural and educational exchange between Brazil and the United States during this period. Moura even points out the existence of resistance to US influence, but ends up presenting these exchanges as a one-way street, based on “teaching” (USA) and “learning” (Brazil). (Moura, 1991, p.50).

Throughout the 1900s and 2000s, the number of productions focused on OCIAA’s actions in the press, cinema, music, literature, education and science grew. Among them is the book O imperialismo sedutor (2001), by Antonio Pedro Tota. In this work, the author analyzes the actions of OCIAA in Brazil, highlighting the call for artists, intellectuals, businessmen, journalists and other professionals to act in the promotion of exchanges with Brazilians. Tota presents the “Americanization” of Brazil not as imitation or passive acceptance, but as a process marked by advances, setbacks and resistance.

Regarding educational exchanges during the war, I highlight Rabelo’s (2019) research on Charleton Washburne’s travels through Latin America, in 1942, in the service of the State Department. Washburne was president of the Progressive Education Association (PEA), an American organization, section of the New Education Fellowship (NEF), an international association devoted to publishing journals, promoting conferences, and creating study groups in the field of education.[11]

Carleton Washburne, da faculdade de Brooklyn (NY), Leon Hamlet (à esquerda), Carlin Turner, W. Potter Rd. e Martin Kuban. Foto: Jornal de Milwaukee (1955)

Regarding educational exchanges during the war, I highlight Rabelo’s (2019) research on Charleton Washburne’s travels through Latin America, in 1942, in the service of the State Department. Washburne was president of the Progressive Education Association (PEA), an American organization, section of the New Education Fellowship (NEF), an international association devoted to publishing journals, promoting conferences and creating study groups in the educational field.[11]According to According to the author, the Brazilian section NEF was created during Washburne’s visit to Brazil in 1942. His trip to Latin America was linked to the international conference of that organization, held in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1941. Rabelo studies the construction of networks between Washburne and Latin American representatives from the event at UM, which earned him the invitation to travel around the region on behalf of the State Department. During his visits to countries like Brazil, he would have managed to mobilize contacts, mediating the creation of NEF in the country.

Finally, I highlight studies developed by Kropf (2020) and Cunha (2021) on educational exchanges promoted under the Brazilian Fellowship Program, an agreement signed in 1938 between the Brazil-United States Institute and the University of Michigan. While Kropf focuses on the creation of the program, Cunha deepens from a case study to highlight the complexity of exchanges between Brazil and the United States. The two authors highlight the multiplicity of characters, interests and negotiations of the agents involved in the exchanges made possible by the Good Neighbor Policy.[12]

The works cited here highlight figures such as researchers, professors and scientists, involved in educational exchanges between Brazil and the USA. These meetings, made possible by the Good Neighbor Policy, reveal the importance of cultural diplomacy in building networks between institutions and researchers from both countries. At the same time, they point to the importance of these characters in the implementation of US policies directed at Brazil and also highlight institutional, state and personal interests and gains, transformations and mutual influences, without losing sight of the asymmetries of the meetings.

Conclusion

In this article, I made a brief assessment of the historiographical production on Brazil-United States relations between the 1930s and 1940s. for more recent work.

Since the 1960s, the number of studies on the period has grown and expanded with different approaches, objects and focuses of analysis. If at the end of the 20th century political studies predominated, today there is an increase in the focus on cultural dimensions. Cinema, literature, radio, cultural and educational exchanges are themes that are calling the attention of Brazilian historians.

Furthermore, the change in scales of analysis with the growth of case studies is perceptible, revealing aspects and issues little explored in previous works. When focusing on characters and/or agencies, many researchers have highlighted the complexity of relations between the two countries and the multiple interests and conflicts that permeated the process of rapprochement between Brazilians and Americans.

With regard to the educational field, the productions are incipient, but they are promising. The studies produced demonstrate the importance of the Good Neighbor Policy for the transit of teachers and students between the two countries, demonstrating the importance of these meetings in the circulation of educational theories and methods, in the construction of transnational networks.

Notas

[1] MCCANN, Frank D. Aliança Brasil-Estados Unidos (1937-1945). Tradução: Jayme Taddei e José Lívio Dantas. Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 1995. ____. Soldados da pátria: história do exército brasileiro (1889-1937). São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007. ___. Brazil and United States during World Ward II and Its Aftermath: Negotiating Alliance and Balacing Fiants. Swizerland: Palgrave Macmillian, 2018. HILTON, Stanley E. Brazil and the Great Powers (1930-1939). Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975.  ___. A guerra secreta de Hitler no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1983. ___. O ditador e o embaixador. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record, 1987. De todos os autores mencionados, Moniz Bandeira é o que trabalha com períodos mais amplos da história das relações Brasil-EUA. Entre seus livros sobre o tema estão: BANDEIRA, Moniz. Presença dos Estados Unidos no Brasil (dois séculos de história). Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 1973. ____. Brasil-Estados Unidos: a rivalidade emergente (1955-1980). Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 1989. ____. Brasil, Argentina e Estados Unidos (Da Tríplice Aliança ao Mercosul). Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2003. HIRST, Mônica. O processo de alinhamento nas relações Brasil-EUA. Dissertação de Mestrado. Instituto Universitário de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro (IUPERJ), 1982.  HIRST, Mônica. Brasil-Estados Unidos: desencontros e afinidades. Rio de Janeiro: FGV, 2009. SEITENFUS, Ricardo Antônio Silva. O Brasil de Getúlio Vargas e a formação dos blocos (1930-1942): o processo de envolvimento brasileiro na II Guerra Mundial. São Paulo: Editora Nacional, 1985. MOURA, Gerson. Autonomia na dependência: a política externa brasileira de 1935 a 1942. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1980. Este livro é resultado da dissertação de mestrado, realizado junto ao IUPERJ em 1979. MOURA, Gerson. Tio Sam chega ao Brasil: a penetração cultural americana. Rio de Janeiro: Brasiliense, 1984. MOURA, Gerson. Relações exteriores do Brasil (1939-1950): mudanças na natureza das relações Brasil-Estados Unidos durante e após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Brasília: Fundação Alexandre de Gusmão, 2012. Publicado em 2012, este livro é resultado da tese de doutorado do autor, defendida, em 1982, na Universidade de Londres sob a orientação de Leslie Bethell.

[2] O Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA) foi criado pelo governo estadunidense, em 1940, sob a liderança do milionário e filantropo Nelson Rockefeller. Esta agência tinha como objetivo promover a aproximação entre EUA e América Latina através do patrocínio de intercâmbios, viagens de artistas e intelectuais, publicação de revistas, produção de filmes, documentários e telejornais, entre outras atividades.

[3] Alguns exemplos: GARCIA, Tânia da Costa. Carmen Miranda e os Good Neigbours. Diálogos, vol. 7, p.37-46, 2003. MAUAD, Ana Maria. Genevieve Naylor, fotógrafa: impressões de viagem (Brasil, 1941-1942). Revista Brasileira de História, v. 25, n. 49, p.43-75, 2005. RABELO, Fernanda Lima. A Hollywood da boa vizinhança: imagens do Brasil em documentários norte-americanos na Segunda Guerra. Jundiaí: Paco, 2018.

[4] VALIM, Alexandre Busko. O triunfo da persuasão: Brasil, Estados Unidos e o cinema na política de boa vizinhança durante a II Guerra Mundial. São Paulo: Alameda, 2017. MORINAKA, Eliza Mitiyo. Livros, trocas culturais e relações internacionais Brasil-Estados Unidos em um contexto de guerra (1941-1946). Varia História, Belo Horizonte, v.35, n.69, p.691-722, set./dez. 2019.

[5] MARINHO, Maria Gabriela S. M. C. Norte-americanos no Brasil. Uma história da Fundação Rockefeller na Universidade de São Paulo (1934-1952). Campinas: Diretores Associados; São Paulo: Universidade São Francisco, 2001.

[6] SILVA, André Cândido Felipe da. A diplomacia das cátedras: a política cultural externa alemã e o ensino superior paulista – os casos da USP e da Escola Paulista de Medicina (1934-1942). História (São Paulo), v.32, n.01, p.401-431, jan./jun. 2013. SILVA, André Felipe Cândido da. A diplomacia das cátedras: a política cultural externa alemã e o ensino superior paulista – os casos da USP e da Escola Paulista de Medicina (1934-1942). História (São Paulo), v.32, n. 1, p. 401-431, jan./jun. 2013.

[7] FREIRE JUNIOR, Olival. Diplomacia cultural no contexto da Segunda Guerra: o caso da Engenharia Metalúrgica na USP. Revista Brasileira de História da Ciência, Rio de Janeiro, v.10, n.2, p.142-153, jul./dez. 2017. SILVA, Indianara; FREIRE JUNIOR, Olival. Diplomacy and Science in the Context of World War II: Arthur Compton’s 1941 Trip to Brazil. Revista Brasileira de História, São Paulo, v. 34, n. 67, p.181-201, 2014.

[8] KROPF, Simone P.; HOWELL, Joel D. War, Medicine and Cultural Diplomacy in the Americas: Frank Wilson and Brazilian Cardiology. Jounal of the History and Allied Sciences, v.0, n.0, p.1-26, August 10, 2017.

[9] CAMPOS, André Luiz Vieira de. Políticas internacionais de saúde na Era Vargas: o Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública, 1942-1960. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Fiocruz, 2006.

[10] LOPES, Thiago da Costa. Em busca da comunidade: ciências sociais, desenvolvimento rural e diplomacia culturas nas relações Brasil-EUA (1930-1950). Rio de Janeiro: Editora Fiocruz, 2020.

[11] RABELO, Fernanda. Carleton Washburne e o Departamento de Estado dos EUA: a educação latino-americana em meio à política de boa vizinhança. Anais do I Congresso Internacional Pensamento e Pesquisa sobre a América Latina. FFLCH/USP, São Paulo, 2019.

[12] KROPF, Simone Petraglia. Circuitos da boa vizinhança: Diplomacia cultural e intercâmbios educacionais entre Brasil e Estados Unidos durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Varia História, Belo Horizonte, v.36, n. 71, p.91-118, maio/ago. 2020. CUNHA, Adriana Mendonça. Intercâmbios educacionais em tempo de guerra: os apontamentos de Robert K. Hall sobre as reformas do ensino secundário no Estado Novo. Revista Hydra, v.6, n.10, p.226-258, ago. 2021.

References

KROPF, Simone P. Circuitos da boa vizinhança: Diplomacia cultural e intercâmbios educacionais entre Brasil e Estados Unidos durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Varia História, Belo Horizonte, v.36, n. 71, p.91-118, maio/ago. 2020.

LOCHERY, Neil. Brasil: os frutos da guerra. Tradução: Lourdes Sette. Rio de Janeiro: Intrínseca, 2015.

MACCANN, Frank D. Aliança Brasil-Estados Unidos (1937-1945). Tradução: Jayme Taddei e José Lívio Dantas. Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 1995.

MOURA, Gerson. Relações Exteriores do Brasil (1930-1950): mudanças na natureza das relações Brasil-Estados Unidos durante e após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Brasília: Fundação Alexandre de Gusmão, 2012.

MOURA, Gerson. Tio Sam chega ao Brasil: a penetração cultural americana. 7ed. Rio de Janeiro: Brasiliense, 1991.

RAJ, Kapil. Além dos pós-colonialismo… e pós-positivismo: circulação e a história global da ciência. Revista Maracanan, Rio de Janeiro, n. 12, p. 164-175, dez., 2015.

RAJ, Kapil. Conexões, cruzamentos, circulações: a passagem da cartografia britânica pela Índia, séculos XVII-XIX. Cultura: Revista de História e Teorias das Ideias, v. 24, p. 155-179, 2007.

SILVA, Indianara. FREIRE JUNIOR, Olival; Diplomacy and Science in the Context of World War II: Arthur Compton’s 1941 Trip to Brazil. Revista Brasileira de História. São Paulo, v. 34, n. 67, p.181-201, 2014.

TOTA, Antonio Pedro. O imperialismo sedutor: a americanização do Brasil na época da Segunda Guerra. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2000.

WEINSTEIN, Barbara. Pensando a história fora da nação: a historiografia da América Latina e o viés transnacional. Revista Eletrônica da ANPHLAC, n. 14, p. 9-36, jan./jun., 2013.


Autora

Adriana Mendonça Cunha is a doctoral student at the Graduate Program in History of Sciences and Health at Casa de Oswaldo Cruz (PPGHCS/COC/Fiocruz). She has a master’s degree in Education from the Federal University of Sergipe (PPGED / UFS) and a degree in History from the same institution. She has published, among other works, Desvendando caminhos para análise de fontes oficiais (2022) e Intercâmbios educacionais em tempos de guerra os apontamentos de Robert K. Hall (2021). Member of the Present Grupo de Estudos do Tempo Presente (GET/UFS/CNPq). ID Currículo Lattes:  http://lattes.cnpq.br/8814713580643406; ID Orcid: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0377-8745; E – mail: [email protected].


To cite this article

CUNHA, Adriana Mendonça. Relações EUA e América Latina nas décadas e 1930 e 1940. Crítica Historiográfica. Natal, v.3, n.9, jan./fev., 2023. Disponível em <https://www.criticahistoriografica.com.br/a-politica-da-boa-vizinhanca-e-as-relacoes-brasil-eua-um-breve-balanco-historiografico/>. DOI: 10.29327/254374.3.9-13


© – Authors who publish in Crítica Historiográfica agree to the distribution, remixing, adaptation and creation of their texts, even for commercial purposes, provided that due credit is guaranteed for the original creations. (CC BY-SA).

 

Crítica Historiográfica. Natal, v.3, n. 9, jan./feb., 2023 | ISSN 2764-2666

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